Saturday, March 21, 2020

Inventions and Discoveries

Introduction Invention can be defined as a final result of imagination which could have originated from a mere conception or from experimental researches. Discovery on the other hand is initial or primary acquisition of a given idea or information by an individual.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Inventions and Discoveries specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As invention gives credit to the person who performed the act as the actual source of the conception, discovery is a credit to any other person who comes across an idea for the first time with respect to himself or herself. Invention is therefore a special primary discovery. This paper seeks to discuss some of the significant discoveries that were made as a result of the inventions of the telescope and the microscope. The paper will look into the history of the discoveries and their effects in the development of the human well beings as well as the enha ncement of the human understanding of the surrounding nature in terms of changing the traditions and the society. Discoveries due to Invention of the Microscope The invention of microscope occurred in the sixteenth century. Believed to have been invented in Netherlands, the technology of the microscope was developed over time by the improvement on the lenses and other features of the microscope. Some of the significant discoveries made through the use of microscopes include the discovery of yeast fungus by Louis Pasteur and the discovery of cells that led to the cell theory (Microscopy, n.d). The Discovery of Yeast Fungus The discovery of yeast fungus is attributed to Louis Pasteur who was a French national. Born in the year 1822, Louis was schooled to advanced levels of education even though most of his teachers didn’t think of him as worth the higher levels of education. Louis Pasteur was the first personality to lay down the foundation of fermentation. He illustrated in hi s discovery the process by which yeast aids the process in which alcohol can be obtained from sugar. In his discovery, Louis disapproved the initial perception that the process of brewing alcohol from sugar was a purely a chemical process rather than a biological process.Advertising Looking for research paper on biology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the discovery, he demonstrated that yeast is living organisms that can undertake a process of anaerobic respiration that yields fermentation (Science, 2011). The discovery made by Louis that established yeast as the driving engine behind the brewing of alcohol changed the traditional perception that the brewing process was chemical. It had been previously assumed and believed that the process of brewing alcohol was primarily a chemical reaction. The assumption of the chemical process in the conversion of sugar into alcohol subsequently covered a lot of risks that alcohol expo sed people to as a result of its bacterial components. In the discovery, it was realized that the fermentation process was infested by a number of disease causing micro organisms that included bacteria, fungi and a number of yeast species. As a result of the presence of disease causing organism in the fermentation process, steps were taken by another scientist to eliminate these organisms from yeast. The success of this elimination strategy allowed for a brewing process that was free from the micro organisms apart from the yeast. There were further studies and successes in the refining of the fermentation process which was fueled by Louis’ discovery of the yeast as the basis of fermentation. The move saw the development of the brewing industry and the elimination of disease causing organisms as components of alcohol. By so doing, the discovery by Louis improved the welfare of people by setting a stage upon which their health was taken care of. The elimination of the bacteria and the other organisms from yeast and further developments of the brewing process had the positive effects of eliminating the diseases and medical complications that were caused by these micro organisms. The discovery of the yeast further led to development of the knowledge of the biological sector of micro organisms and the subject of anaerobic respiration (Khachatourians and Arora, 2002).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Inventions and Discoveries specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Discovery of Cells and the Cell Theory The discovery of cells was made by an English man called Robert Hook. Hook, after designing and upon using a microscope, made an observation in 1665 of substances whose composition he expressed as numerous little boxes. He named the little boxes as cells derived from the Latin meaning of â€Å"little room†. The discovery made by Hook broke the traditional belief that had exist ed among people that human body is one whole and uniform substance. Hook on the contrary brought people to the realization that a human body is made up of small tiny substances called cells. It has further been established that cells are the primary building elements of organisms (Crown, 2003). The discovery of cells, after a number of studies led to the establishment of the cell theory. The concept of the cell theory explained that â€Å"organisms are composed of similar units of organization called cells† (Meisler, 2006, p. 1). Having its history from as early as 1838, the theory described the cell as distinct element with its own features and as a component of a bigger structure which is the organism. The cell theory established the facts that living organisms are composed of these elementary cells, that the cells in the organisms are both structural elements and functional components of the organisms; cells are genetic with features that are transmitted during cell divisi on and that the cells have similar composition. The establishment of the cell theory, however, originates from the discovery of cells by Hook which was facilitated by the invention of the microscope. The discovery of cells refuted the earlier perception that the body organs were a uniform mass of substance. The discovery on the contrary illustrated that the structural organs of organisms are composed of small cells that together forms the organs or body parts. The discovery subsequently led the advancement of knowledge through further discoveries and studies about cells and the organs that they form. The extension of the discovery and the study of the cells to the discovery and study of the nucleus by Brown and the further exploration of the components of cell, types of cells such as the reproductive cells and the DNA cells have been explorations in the subject of biology. The study of the human anatomy which also originated from the discovery of cells has led to discoveries and imp rovement of human health through discovery of medicines that help in preserving human health. The cell discovery though a small ancient innovation, has developed to be the core of human health (Meisler, 2006).Advertising Looking for research paper on biology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discoveries due to the Invention Telescope The invention of the telescope is, according Fowler (n.d.), officially attributed Galileo. The invention was formerly made by a man called Roger Bacon who failed to obtain a patent for his invention on the grounds that his innovation was too simple and could be easily reproduced. Galileo then later in his experiments discovered an improvement on the knowledge that pre existed. In his innovation, Galileo realized that the magnifying power highly depended on the ratio of the strengths of two lenses used in the system, the concave and the convex lenses. After his discovery and modifications, Galileo was granted tenure over the developments (Fowler, n.d.). The Dark Energy The invention of telescope opened the universe for study by astrologists. With a clearer and better view of the universe by aid of the telescope, many discoveries have since been made about the features of the universe and the changes that are taking place. One of the stunning discoveries made was the observation of the dark energy. Dark energy is a feature of the space. According to NASA (n.d.), the dark energy is exerting an effective force that is greatly accelerating the expansion of the universe. The discovery of the dark energy and the expansion of the universe posed a challenge to the previous theory of gravitational force. Under the theory of force of gravity, there would be no expansion of the universe as the force exerts an attraction towards the center. This discovery of the dark matter has further triggered the study into the universe by casting doubts on the centrifugal theory (NASA, n.d.). Walker (2010) expressed the fear that the extensiveness and totality of the dark energy in the universe which has a negative implication on the strength of the gravitational force yields a reason for worry. He recounted that scientists consider the dark energy to be a threat to the universe, though they estimate that the universe still has billions of yea rs of existence. The discovery is greatly developing the understanding of the state of the universe as more effort is being made to understand the effects of the dark energy. The dark energy is still more of a mystery but could turn out to be advantageous or dangerous to the welfare of people. More of its nature and effects are yet to be discovered (Walker, 2010). Planetary Nebulae The planetary nebulae have their history of discovery dating from the eighteenth century. The name nebula was accorded to these matters owing to their similarities to the color of Uranus and Neptune. The nebulae are gaseous substances with a fuzzy view and a recognized level of symmetry (Kwok, 2007). Their discovery added to the richness of the study of the universe. The ability to identify and view planetary nebulae was basically due to the existence of the telescope that has exposed the universe to exploration. Their discovery further led to advanced study that led to the revelation of how they are form ed, their properties and their distribution. The discovery can therefore be similarly credited with enhancement of human knowledge of the universe in general, and that about the planetary nebulae in particular. The knowledge of the formation of the planetary nebulae for example illustrates that evolution of a star leads to emission of a great wind. An instability created in the process leads to the breakage of the outer layer of the star. This results in hot substances that can then be seen as a glowing disc. An important idea noted about the planetary nebulae is the fact that they are reabsorbed into the â€Å"interstellar medium†. This means that the emissions in the process of the formation of the nebulae do not spread to the earth. This has a significant importance to the general inhabitants of the earth considering the fact that some of the foreign emissions into the earth’s atmosphere are normally dangerous with adverse side effects. An illustrative example is th e harmful ultra violet radiations into the atmosphere. The knowledge of the reabsorbing these emissions into their systems is a relief that builds confidence in people concerning their safety and welfare on earth. The discovery of the planetary nebulae has therefore promoted the development of knowledge through furthering studies and invention as well as stabilizing fears of external threats to the earth’s atmosphere (Darling, n.d.). Conclusion The world of discoveries and inventions has been in existence for over centuries. The inventions have been diverse covering both theories and instruments. The discoveries and inventions are on their merits spontaneous processes with one step leading to a chain of further discoveries and inventions. An illustration is seen in the invention of the telescope and the microscope that further led to discoveries of elements like the brewing process, the cell theory, the dark matter as well as the planetary nebulae of the space. These discover ies have in one way or the other developed the human knowledge by furthering studies and as well enhanced the well being of people either socially or in terms of health. References Crown. (2003). The discovery of cells. Strengthening Teaching and Learning of Cells. Retrieved from: Darling, D. ( n.d.). Planetary nebula. David darling Info. Retrieved from: Fowler, M. (n.d.). Galileo and the Telescope. University of Virginia. Retrieved from: Khachatourians, G. and Arora, K. (2002). Agriculture and Food Production, Volume 2. Netherlands: Elsevier. Kwok, S. (2007). Planetary nebulae. ScholarPedia. Retrieved f rom: Meisler, C. (2006). Cell Theory and Cell Organelles. Bemidjistate. Retrieved from: Microscopy. (n.d.). The history of the microscope. Microscopy. Retrieved from: NASA. (n.d.). Dark energy, dark matter. Science NASA. Retrieved from: Science. (2011). Louis Pasteur. All About Science. Retrieved from: Walker, L. (2010). Will Dark Energy Destroy the Earth? Retrieved from: This research paper on Inventions and Discoveries was written and submitted by user Paula E. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The Effect of Life Changes On Stress Related Illness -Psychology Essay

The Effect of Life Changes On Stress Related Illness -Psychology Essay Free Online Research Papers The Effect of Life Changes On Stress Related Illness -Psychology Essay Holmes and Rahe intended to find a link between the changes in some one’s life and them becoming stressed and consequently ill, so both the links between life changes and stress, and then stress and illness. The last thing they wanted to do was to determine the severity of a life change, and thus predict how ill you may become. Some of the procedures that the two men undertook included checking patient’s medical records to find 43 life changes that were common during the months prior to the illness, then asked roughly 400 people to rate how stressful each event was in relation to getting married which was given a rating of 50, this then led to them creating there SRRS (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and finally, some patients they asked were already ill and were asked to calculate their SRRS totals in the few earlier months, and the reverse, some people found their SRRS scores and were then monitored for illness. They found that there was a correlation of higher SRRS scores and more likely to become ill. The percentage was roughly 50% likely to become ill if your score was over 200 and 80% if more than 300. There are unfortunately a couple of weaknesses about this theory. Some of them include the fact that positive and negative changes were both counted alike, but this could be a mistake as positive changes may be more enjoyable and not contributing to the illness in any way. And another weakness is cultural relativism, as some things that we may find a negative change and find to be stressful, may be the complete opposite for other cultures, and thus it may not help towards and illness. Finally it was found by Kanner, that a more accurate way of using this theory was to measure changes by daily minor hassles, such as getting stuck in a traffic jam or missing a bus etc. These weaknesses are all quite major factors, even though the SRRS and related research is still in common use today. Research Papers on The Effect of Life Changes On Stress Related Illness -Psychology EssayArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)The Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseThree Concepts of PsychodynamicResearch Process Part OneStandardized TestingLifes What IfsInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyRelationship between Media Coverage and Social and

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Wall Street Journal #1 Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Wall Street Journal #1 - Article Example tributed to the lack of a master plan as well as disjointed plans and the different forms of mixed-use developments in Mexico City are new to the area and have brought a lot of demand from the upper-middle class particularly the ones with young families due to their collection of retail, cultural attractions and offices (Whelan). Developers have taken the vacant land in the area and closed industrial sites so that they can be abele to develop sites, and this has increased the population of the city without considering the breadth of the streets to accommodate the increased flow of traffic, the electrical systems as well as the capacity of the water in the area. It is easier to get a permit for development in Mexico City than it is in New York City, and this is the main cause of the exponential growth that has brought problems as far as water and power are concerned. The city has had to put a hold on the permitting process and consequently start an overhaul of the entire process so that it can be able to check and plan for the development that is taking place. This has lead to many developers that had already procured land for the construction having to wait a little longer until the process is reviewed making them delay on huge

Monday, February 3, 2020

Describe the nature of Scared Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Describe the nature of Scared - Essay Example They developed the existing architecture from a several other nation they conquered including Egypt and improved it with their knowledge so it could fit with their wealth and the rapidly expanding urban population. In the Ottoman Empire, there was also a distinct connection between the nature of architecture and the cultural and religious beliefs and in many ways; the architecture reflected the Islam faith (Saound 2). For instance, Sultan Suleyman designed a mosque that had rooms that were specifically designed to accommodate travelers and strangers, engendering some of the basic tenets of Islamic faith. This paper is aimed at discussing Roman and Ottoman architecture in the periods between the 4th and 17th century in relation the religious significance borne. The designers of the first Roman temples were priest who lead in the practice of rituals in the period around 600-800 BC, at this point, the Romans were not the great nation they were to later become and did not even have an em pire. They would hold rituals aimed at the cultivation of Godly values, family and ordering the life of the society, the rituals would each get the formation of space deemed appropriate for them. With time, the priests would frame the space they needed for their rituals in the abstract; eventually, actual buildings were put up to contain the activities and this morphed into different temples; for different Gods and with different purposes. While Roman architects were expected to be practical in their work, beauty and grandeur were critical aspects of any construction commissioned especially for their Gods and Rulers. This is because the buildings were intended not only for the performance of public functions but also to impress not only the local but also visitors who would spread news of Rome’s grandeur. Gradually, the religious importance attached to Roman temples came to transcend the religions and the deities for whom they were constructed, retrospectively; Romans practic ed a syncretic religion with many gods who had temples dedicated to them. However, when Rome became the headquarters or Christianity in general, and the Catholic Church in particular as it still is, many of the temples were turned into churches and still functional as such to date. One of the greatest works of Roman architecture was the Madison Carree, located in Nimes, France; it was built in the 16 BC, however in the 4th BC when Christianity had entrenched itself in Roman social fiber, it was converted into a church albeit having served as a temple for the early secular Gods. A discussion of Religious architecture, Roman or otherwise, would be incomplete without a mention of the Pantheon; it was and remains one of the most remarkable and well preserved architectural works from ancient Rome. Built in 126BC, it has served as a Roman catholic church since the 7th century; it is made up of a huge Circular portico and there Corinthian columns made of granite three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (Moser). Probably the most amazing aspect of the design is the fact that the at the top, the temple is there is a central circular opening known as the Oculus making the temple a huge tourist attraction is even more popular during the rainy weather. Then, visitors can watch the rainfall from the top of the

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Process Of Brewing Beer

The Process Of Brewing Beer Beer is the worlds ancient and most generally consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. The word beer comes from the Latin word bibere, meaning to drink. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains predominantly malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used. Maximum beer is flavored with hops, which enhance bitterness and also acts as a natural preservative, nevertheless other flavorings such as herbs or fruit may rarely be included. The chemical equation beneath sum up to form beer: C6H12O6 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬  Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2 History The history of beer making is a story of creation, dedication and honor. While wine making is a very old art that probably invented with the Phoenicians some 2,600 years ago, the art of beer making is said to be older than that of farming. Around 10,000 and 15,000 years ago, women were known to collect wild grain and utilize it to make beer by fermentation which would dependent on spontaneous air borne yeast. Along the birth of civilization correspondingly originated the skilled beer brewing. The Sumerians in around 6,000 years old developed different varieties by soaking barley bread in water. Around 4000 years ago seal, of a Goddess of brewing Hymn to Ninkasi was found in Sumerians period. In which hymn is also a process for making beer. The Babylonians around 2000 years later brought forth several further varieties. Babylonians also distributed and exported the beer and above all, there were laws on the beer. For example the king used to decide the quantity of beer that a person can consume. Beer in that was also sold on barter system. After Babylonians, Egyptians carried on the custom of beer brewing. They also developed many different varieties of beer by adding dates and other fruits. Greeks and Romans carried the tradition of beer brewing as the capture on the Egyptians. In Roman Empire beer was drank in some parts where there was no wine available. Beer of that time could not be s tored and there was no yeast introduced yet. As the culture of barley spread in in north and west, the beer brewing also grabbed attention. After that period, slowly beer brewing reached the entire world and also developed because of trade, wars, and modernization of world. Process of beer brewing The simplest way to describe the process of beer making is fermentation of Malted barley, hops, water and yeast. But sometimes to give beer a specific flavor, ingredients like wheat, maize (corn), rice, fruit, dry fruit and spices are introduced and this dependence on the region where the beer is produced. If the process is considered in detail beer brewing has different stages like malting, milling, mashing, brewing, cooling, fermentation which is followed by maturation, filtering (finishing) and packaging. What is barley? Barley is a towering grass and on the top of the stalk it has got seeds. Barley is not used for baking because it does not form good dough nevertheless it is good for brewing beer. Barley is available numerous strains and ranges that eventually influence the flavor of the beer. Malting Malting is the first step of beer making. In this process barley is prepared to be used in brewing. Barley cannot be used directly to produce the wert since the starch in its floury kernels is insoluble. As the process of malting progress it exposes the starches present in the barley. The first step is Steeping in malting in which grain is soaked in a barrel of water for approximately 40 hours. The second step is germination of the barley grain and for the grain to germinate it is spread on the flat surface in the sprouting room for roughly three to five days where the formation of rootlets instigated. The germination process produces the enzymes by breaking down. At the end of the process, the starch become soft but the enzymes is not in progress of transforming the starch into sugar. Now the barley grain is knows as green malt. Kilning The next process is kilning. Germination is stopped by drying the green malt on metal shelves in the oven (kiln house) at 50 ° C. The temperature is then raised up to 85 °C to make a light malt, or more upper for a dark malt. It is essential that temperature should be raised slowly for the reason that the enzymes in the grain are not ruined. The malted shoots are separated and then dried malts are stored in grain storage. Even though malted barley is the chief ingredient, unmalted corn, rice or wheat are added sometimes, to create diverse beer flavors in this malting process. At the end of kilning, the product obtained malt. The flavor, color and aroma of the beer would be different as there are variations in the ways of malting the barley. Milling Next process is milling and as the name suggest it is the cracking of the grain which the brewer chooses for the particular batch of beer. Milling the grain allows it to absorb the water which would eventually be mixed in order to let water to extract sugars from the malt. Mashing The following step to milling is Mashing. Mashing is the process of making the finest ground malt into a sweet syrupy fluid. Mashing transforms the starches into sugars that can be fermented and which are released throughout the malting period. The milled grains are released into warm water then are slowly heated to about 75 ° C in a big cooking container so called as mash tun. In this mash tun, the grain and heated water forms a cereal mash which dissolves the starch into the water, converting it into sugar mostly maltose. Water itself is a key ingredient in beer because water is an important part of the brewing process. This water which contains sugar is then strained through the bottom of the mash and is now entitled as wert. Brewing Brewing is one of the most an important process in beer making. The finished grains are drained out and wert are ready for boiling and this consist of several technical and chemical reactions. During this stage, vital judgments are made for the flavor, color and aroma of the beer. Different kinds of hops are added at different times throughout the boil process for either bitterness or aroma and also for preserve it. The wert is boiled for 1 or 2 hours to sterilize and concentrate it and extract the necessary essence from the hops. Cooling Cooling is the next step. The wert is shifted quickly from the brew kettle to filter out the hops through a method, and then it is taken to a heat exchanger for cooled. It is essential to rapidly cool wert to a point where yeast can be securely added, as yeast doesnt grow in high heat. Fermentation Fermentation is a vital step in brewing. The brewer now selects a type of yeast and adds it to the fermentation tank. This is where the real magic of brewing happens when the yeast, eats the sugar in the wert and turns it into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This process takes ten days. The wort finally becomes beer. Maturation Maturation which is also known as racking. The beer has now been brewed, but it can still be improved through maturation. Throughout this stage, the brewer transfers and shelves the beer into a new tank known as the conditioning tank. The brewer then just waits for the beer aging process to complete and thus its flavor also ripens. The liquid clarifies as yeast and other particles settle. Secondary fermentation saturates the beer with carbon dioxide. Finishing Finishing is the end of the brewing process. Here the beer is filtered and carbonated. Additional filtering contributes to the sparkling clarity of beer. The beer is transformed to a holding tank where it kept till it is bottled, canned or put into kegs. Filling systems ensure that air does not come into contact with the beer and is not trapped inside the container. Chemistry of beer What are the different flavor and color of beer and from where does the beer get them? There are many forms of malts. This include pale malts with are dried at a low temperature. Therefore it produces a malt that give the beer a pale golden color and a slightly bready flavor such as a pilsner. (PILSENER: A pale lager with strong flavor of hops; first brewed in the Bohemian town of Pilsen.). Mild ale malts are kilned to a bit higher temperature which produces a pale malt that gives the beer a deeper color and slightly toasted biscuit flavors. Many English ales go for this malt process. Vienna and Munich malts are simmered and lightly kilned thus helps some of the starch to convert more sugar which give the beer an orangey amber color and the classic toffees taste, furthermore nutty flavors of Oktoberfest beer and other Bavarian, German specialties. The highest temperatures are used to acquire very flavorful and aromatic malts. Caramel and Crystal malts are slowly boil until all of their starches are converted into sugars then they are kilned until they caramelize and th is caramel flavored malt gives the beer a reddish-amber color, rich flavors. Kiln the barley longer and at higher temperatures and the darker and roastier the beer will be. Just like higher roasted coffee beans. This will give the beer darker color and chocolate, coffee and espresso-like flavors. What does yeast do in beer? Each brewery has its own strains of yeast, and it is these that largely determine the character of the beer. In some yeast varieties, the cells rise to the top at the end of fermentation, and are then skimmed off. This is called top fermentation, and ales are brewed in this way. When at the end of fermentation the yeast cells sink to the bottom, the process is known as bottom fermentation, used for lager or pils. When ales are brewed yeast commonly used is known as Saccharomyces cerevisia and for lager and pils Saccharomyces calsbergensis. Some special Belgian beers use a third method where fermentation relies on spontaneous action by airborne yeasts. Alcohol percentages of beer worldwide Alcohol percentages vary by country to country. As British ale beer contains average alcohol about 4.4% whereas Belgian beers tend to have average alcohol of about 8%. In India there are 3 common types of beer which include lager beer which consist of around 4% of alcohol, about 8% is premium beer and super strong beer consist of about 15%. The strongest beer sold in Britain was Dogfish Heads which had 21% alcohol in 2003. In Japan in 2005, the Hakusekikan Beer Restaurant sold an eisbock, believed that it had 28% alcohol. The strongest beers sold in 2009 Scotlands Brew Dog Brewing released Tactical Nuclear Penguin, claiming the title of worlds strongest beer at which had 32%. Recently for Brew Dog, Schorschbrà ¤u Brewing from Germany released Schorschbock in January 2010 which consists of about 40% alcohol. Infected beer The diacetyl, light struck, oxidation, esters, phenols, over or under carbonation, acidic are some infection that beer can get. Diacetyl is instigated when there is not sufficient oxygen in wort and high temperature initial fermentation. Light struck is affect the beer when the beer is exposed to light. When air is bonded with beer oxidation takes place and the beer is spoiled which gives the beer a cardboard or paper smell. When Banana, apple flavor comes from beer the beer is affected by esters. Over or under carbonation is caused when the bottles are not sealed properly moreover this can also happen when the yeast added to the beer is wild. When bacterias like lactobacillus and bacillus attack the beer the beer is infected and this is seen when the beer gets acidic. Conclusion

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Dramatic tension Essay

This then, is clearly contrasted with the language used when describing a life spent as Willy’s has been, selling and buying. Biff speaks off such a life using words such as ‘suffer’ and ‘measly’ and again, the stage directions are clear in indicating his tone ‘with rising agitation. ‘ A dramatic tension is created then, between the different lifestyles, as Biff and Happy are portrayed as struggling with the inner conflict of conforming to their father’s ideals, or obeying their natural desires. The setting is also crucial in conveying dramatic tension. The use of scenery illuminates the attitude of Willy, and the audience is engaged in a sensory experience with the actor. Furthermore, the setting reflects the events taking place and can set the mood and atmosphere that are so important in creating dramatic tension. The house then, is a place of an increasingly dramatic tension. The house is an important part of the setting as it represents Willy’s flawed ambition. Details such as the single ‘silver athletic trophy’ being one of the only furnishings represents the importance of success but also the lack of it due to the bard setting of the home. The kitchen then, shows only ‘three chairs’ at the table. This may represent the absence of Biff as part of their lives. Dramatic tension is woven throughout, hinting at difficulties surrounding the return of ‘the prodigal son’ and the lack of selling success that is soon revealed to be haunting Willy. He built the house as a part of his success however; it has become overshadowed by apartment blocks. The street outside is packed with cars showing that success is now being achieved by many and in comparison; Willy’s small house is now insignificant, as is his dwindling success. Many of the events take place in the house, and most prominently, the family arguments. It is in the house that Biff comes to terms with flunking maths, that Biff and Willy argue about success, that Linda yells at her sons, and finally, Biff produces the rubber piping and confronts his father. These arguments create dramatic tension as what should have been the perfect family set-up and home becomes fractured, and so is Willy’s dream, to the point of suicide. The Garden or Backyard is also an important part of the setting. Willy attempts to plant seeds remarking ‘I’ve got to get some seeds, right away. Nothings planted, I don’t have a thing in the ground. ‘ The garden is a motif then, of Willy’s need and desire for success. It also represents the legacy that that Willy never leaves with his family. Though Willy attempts to plant his garden near the end of the play, this is too little too late. His life then, had already been a failure and he has left nothing remarkable by which to be remembered. This is a very high point of dramatic tension as the audience is very aware that Willy seems to sense the end of his life is incredibly close. Linked to the production of the rubber pipe only moments later, an overhanging reminder of Willy’s contemplation of suicide creates incredible tension. Dramatic tension is also created through the use of stage and sound effects as well as lighting. Miller uses all three methods as mood and atmosphere creators to enhance and create dramatic tension. Miller is very specific when describing the effects to depict the Loman house. Staging effects include transparent walls in order to make to whole house accessible to the audience. Furthermore, it creates a sense of vulnerability and rawness enhanced by the towering blocks surrounding the house. This vulnerability then, creates a sense defence from attack that enhances dramatic tension. Miller describes the Tower blocks as ‘tall angular shapes’ that reflect Willy’s feeling of inferiority and also claustrophobia and then create a threatening presence. Lighting is crucial in creating atmosphere and dramatic tension. The beginning scene is the most prominent example of this. At first Miller uses the ‘blue light of the sky’ to recreate a depressed and sorrowful mood. The dramatic tension arises when this becomes and ‘an angry glow of orange. ‘ This change suddenly shows a threatening and angry, harsh and dangerous mood. Tension is obvious as the two moods seem far apart but are obviously both linked to the events that will unfold in the Loman house. Sound effects are also important at this point and then throughout the novel. At this stage, the music of a lilting flute is described as fragile and small and fine. It can be seen to represent the better times of the family in which Willy was more successful. It also becomes associated with Willy’s self-delusion of success and his dream of fortune. This music is played then at varying points throughout the play, symboling to the audience a flashback or a sad remainder of a once optimistic dream. The dramatic tension is created as music appears before the events, leaving the audience with a sense of suspense. Other characters ‘theme music’ are that of Bens, and that of the boys, described as ‘gay and happy. ‘ Miller uses these ahead of the character appearance to show that they are about to become involved in the plot, creating dramatic tension as the audience wonders how this will effect the unfolding events. Miller uses more than just music to create dramatic tension. Sound effects such as the screech of Willy’s tyres as he commits suicide create vivid, realistic and highly tense moments. Miller also uses voices to create confusion in Willy’s last actions, thereby recreating the confusion and breakdown of Willy’s mental state. The tension is increased, as his next moves cannot be predicted. The voice of ‘The Women’ constitutes much dramatic tension. Upon hearing her voice and laugh, even beyond the ‘Boston Bedroom’ scene, we are then led to consider whether Willy has ended the affair and the consequences the relationship would cast. Combined with the way in which the family seems to further splinter, an incredible tension is created. Moreover, Biff’s growing agitation toward his indicates that he may be ready to reveal hidden affair. ‘The Woman’s’ laugh adds to this dramatic tension by sounding ironic and mocking, and this further exposes Willy’s vulnerability and confusion. Symbolism is also used throughout both to create dramatic tension and to link the past and the future. Perhaps the rubber piping creates the highest point of tension. It represents Willy’s insecurities and contemplation of death, a prospect that is in itself, an incredibly dramatically tense subject throughout as the audience is constantly left to wonder whether or not Willy will commit suicide. Furthermore, Linda knows of its existence but is reluctant to confront her husband. From the point that Biff decides to remove and keep the piping, we are aware that he now has two strongholds over his father, and tension is evident in his conflict between using this advantage over the now weakened Willy, and the reminder of the awesome respect he used to hold for his Father. In this final scene, Biff finally confronts his father by producing the tubing. Linda is horrified; Biff is angry and confused while Willy is left to defend himself. Such dramatic tension is highly powerful as it plays on the volatile emotional and relational ties found linking the characters. Their interactions then, are charged emotional, created by Miller as part of an incredibly tense sense of drama. Miller combines these methods of creating intense dramatic tension and as a result has produced a highly successful play that continues to capture the audiences rapt attention throughout.

Friday, January 10, 2020

What Everybody Is Saying About Seminary Graduation Essay Samples Is Wrong and Why

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