Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Is it possible to ensure scientific rigour when conducting Essay

Is it conceivable to guarantee logical meticulousness when leading quantitative and subjective examination - Essay Example It is important that the ideas of legitimacy and dependability of subjective examination have in the past not been very much classified as on account of quantitative exploration. This paper hence, takes a gander at the chance of having a logical meticulousness when leading subjective and quantitative exploration (Gery and Ryan 2013). The quality and unwavering quality of any exploration finding rely upon the strategies utilized in gathering information, test decisions, procedures utilized in the examination and the delineation of the picked methods. Similarly, the specialist needs to create methodical coding examples to help recognize degenerate cases that would somehow or another influence unwavering quality. The Techniques for Collecting Qualitative Data In request to have right induction, the investigated information must be quality information. This implies procedures of gathering information must be all around picked dependent on the sort of exploration and the decisions made ab out the substance. Poor choice of methods is probably going to result into wrong derivation (Meyrick 2006). There are approaches and strategies that can help to improve the legitimacy and dependability of subjective information and the examination reports. To guarantee logical meticulousness, four information assortment methods can be utilized. ... Elicitation procedures can likewise be arranged into kinds of meetings; organized, semi-organized, unstructured, and blended elicitation that joins the three. The utilization of unstructured meetings might be casual or ethnographic. To have control of the outcomes logical examination need to maintain a strategic distance from casual meetings yet pick the organized and ethnographic strategies, which permits longer questionings and more profound testing (Seale and Silverman 1997). This leads into believability of the information with capacity for appropriate examination. This is on the grounds that the organized and semi-organized meetings are frequently intended to permit all sources to be inspected on a lot of comparative inquiries, so as to give a chance of making correlations of the information across respondents or gatherings of respondents to improve unwavering quality. In this technique, the scientist starts the meeting, poses the particular inquiries, and decides if the discuss ion on a specific theme has meets the examination destinations. For this situation, the respondent is guided and limited to the exploration questions. Information gathered is probably going to be dependable if there is a degree of connection over the respondents. Organized meetings are significantly utilized when the examination expects to quantify the size of an event and to help make increasingly precise correlations inside and across gatherings (Seale and Silverman 1997).The legitimacy of such organized meetings is established on the theory that if a deliberate and a lot of normalized instrument is directed to a gathering of people, the changes in their reactions is significantly because of their individual contrasts, however not the distinction in the instrument utilized. Instances of organized

Saturday, August 22, 2020

External Support for Programmers in Tool Building

Outer Support for Programmers in Tool Building 2. LITRATURE SURVEY In a product improvement process a writing review is the most extreme basic advance. It is important to manage the time factor before building up the apparatus economy and friends quality. When these things are fulfilled ten following stages are to figure out which working framework and language can be utilized for building up the instrument. When the developers begin assembling the apparatus the software engineers need part of outer help. This help can be gotten from senior developers, from book or from sites. Before building the framework the above thought are considered for building up the proposed framework. In[1] Haikun Liu, Student Member, IEEE, Hai Jin, Senior Member, IEEE, Xiaofei Liao, Member, IEEE,Chen Yu, Non-Member and Cheng-Zhong Xu, Senior Member, IEEE 2011 Live virtual machine relocation by means of offbeat replication and state synchronization Live migration of virtual machines (VM) transversely over physical hosts gives an immense new favorable position to heads of server homesteads and bundles. Past memory-to-memory techniques show the feasibility of live VM development in neighborhood (LAN), anyway they would realize an extended length of personal time in a wide domain framework (WAN) condition. This paper delineates the diagram and execution of a novel system, explicitly, CR/TR-Motion, which gets checkpointing/recovery and follow/replay advances to give fast, direct VM development for both LAN and WAN circumstances. With execution follow marked on the source have, a synchronization estimation is performed to mastermind the running source and target VMs until they accomplish an anticipated state. CR/TR-Motion can phenomenally decrease the development personal time and framework information transmission use. Preliminary outcomes show that the strategy can reduce migration overheads differentiated and memory-to-memory app roach in a LAN: up to 72.4 percent on application watched vacation, up to 31.5 percent on total development time, and up to 95.9 percent on the data to synchronize the VM state. The application execution overhead in view of development is kept within 8.54 percent all things considered. The results moreover exhibit that for a diverse assortment of remaining burdens moved across over WANs, the development personal time is under 300 milliseconds. In [2] Rajkumar Buyya, Rajiv Ranjan and Rodrigo N. Calheiros Demonstrating and reproduction of adaptable distributed computing conditions and the cloudsim toolbox: Challenges and openings Dispersed processing intends to control the bleeding edge server homesteads and engages application organization providers to lease server ranch capacities with regards to sending applications depending upon customer QoS (Quality of Service) requirements. Cloud applications have particular association, plan, and sending essentials. Assessing the execution of advantage parcel procedures and application booking counts at better focal points in Cloud enrolling circumstances for assorted application and organization models under fluctuating weight, imperativeness execution (power use, heat scattering), and structure size is a trying issue to deal with. To improve this methodology, in this paper we propose CloudSim: an extensible diversion tool compartment that enables showing and proliferation of Cloud enlisting circumstances. The CloudSim apparatus compartment support exhibiting and creation of at least one virtual machines (VMs) on an impersonated center of a Data Center, occupations, and their mapping to appropriate VMs. It moreover allows entertainment of various Data Centers to enable an examination on association and related methodologies for movement of VMs for constancy and customized scaling of employments. In [3] Alexandru Iosup , Nezih Yigitbasi, Dick Epema On the presentation changeability of creation cloud administrations Passed on enrolling plans to control the forefront server estates and connects with application association providers to rent server farm limits for sending applications relying on client QoS (Quality of Service) prerequisites. Cloud applications have undeniable affiliation, plan, and sending basics. Surveying the execution of advantage bit strategies and application booking estimations at better reasons for eagerness for Cloud enlisting conditions for different application and association models under fluctuating weight, criticalness execution (power use, heat dissipating), and framework size is a difficult issue to deal with. To upgrade this system, in this paper we propose CloudSim: an extensible redirection toolbox that draws in displaying and increase of Cloud enrolling conditions. The CloudSim instrument compartment sponsorships appearing and creation of at least one virtual machines (VMs) on an imitated focus purpose of a Data Center, occupations, and their mapping to appropri ate VMs. It additionally permits redirection of unmistakable Data Centers to empower an investigation on affiliation and related approachs for movement of VMs for relentlessness and altered scaling of occupations. In [4] Xiaoqiao Meng, Canturk Isci, Jeffrey Kephart, Li Zhang, Eric Bouillet. 2010 Effective Resource Provisioning in Compute Clouds by means of VM Multiplexing Resource provisioning in figure fogs consistently obliges an assessment of the cutoff needs of Virtual Machines (VMs). The surveyed VM size is the reason for conveying resources proportionate with intrigue. Instead of the standard daily schedule of surveying the range of VMs autonomously, we propose a joint-VM provisioning approach in which distinctive VMs are consolidated and provisioned together, considering an assessment of their complete cutoff needs. This new methodology mishandles accurate multiplexing among the remaining task at hand instances of various VMs, i.e., the peaks and valleys in a single outstanding burden model don't basically blend with the others. Along these lines, the unused resources of a low utilized VM can be gotten by the other help establish VMs with high use. Stood out from individual-VM based provisioning, joint-VM provisioning could provoke a lot higher resource use. This paper shows three framework modules to enable such a thought before long. Specifically, an execution necessity depicting the breaking point need of a VM for achieving a specific degree of utilization execution; an estimation for evaluating the all out size of multiplexed VMs; a VM decision figuring that hopes to find those VM mixes with correlative outstanding task at hand plans. We grandstand that the proposed three modules can be reliably associated with applications, for instance, resource provisioning, and giving resource protections to VMs. The proposed methodology and applications are evaluated by execution data accumulated from around 16 thousand VMs in business server ranches. The results show over 45% overhauls with respect to the general resource use. In [5] Simon Ostermann, Alexandru Iosup, Nezih Yigitbasi, Radu Prodan, Thomas Fahringer and Dick Epema A Performance Analysis of EC2 Cloud Computing Services for Scientific Computing Circulated figuring is growing today as a business base that takes out the necessity for keeping up indulgent preparing gear. Through the use of virtualization, fogs assurance to address with the equivalent shared plan of physical resources a huge customer base with various requirements. Consequently, fogs assurance to be for scientists an unmistakable alternative for gatherings, systems, and super PCs. Regardless, virtualization may incite important execution disciplines for the mentioning insightful figuring remaining burdens. In this work we show an appraisal of the comfort of the present conveyed figuring organizations for exploratory enrolling. We examine the execution of the Amazon EC2 stage using little scope benchmarks and bits. While fogs are up 'til now changing, our results show that the current cloud organizations require a solicitation of enormity in execution change to be significant to set up specialists.

Thursday, August 6, 2020

Further Versus Farther Which Should You Use

Further Versus Farther Which Should You Use As one of the most commonly confused combinations of words in the English language, farther and further create a lot of confusion for both native and ESL learners alike. And for good reason!The reason these words are often confused is that for the most part, they have been used interchangeably until only recently to denote spatial, temporal, or metaphorical distance. In fact, if you look at the definition of further in Websters Dictionary, farther is one of its definitions, making the distinction between the two even more confusing.FartherFirst, lets look at the definition of farther:At or to a greater distance or more advanced pointTo a greater degree or extentThe easiest way to look at this is to see farther as most often referring to a literal distance. Here is an example of farther used in literature:Yes, the newspapers were right: snow was general all over Ireland. It was falling on every part of the dark central plain, on the treeless hills, falling softly upon the Bog of Allen and, farther westward, softly falling into the dark mutinous Shannon waves. It was falling, too, upon every part of the lonely churchyard on the hill where Michael Furey lay buried.Dubliners by James JoyceFurtherFurther, on the other hand, is most often used in relation to a metaphorical distance rather than a literal one. However, youll notice that the dictionary definition of further is in fact farther. This shows why and how the two words are often confused and have been used interchangeably in literature:FartherTo a greater degree or extent.In addition; moreoverAn example of further in literature is this quote:To love or have loved, that is enough. Ask nothing further. There is no other pearl to be found in the dark folds of life.Les Misérables by Victor HugoIts also important to note that Further is the older word of the two but it wasnt until 1906, according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary of English Usage, that writers were encouraged to distinguish further from farther.S o, which should I use?Most present-day editors and writers will use farther when denoting a physical or literal distance, and further when denoting a metaphorical distance. The point at which this becomes a problem is a situation like this: Im further/farther along in the book than you are.Why is this a problem? Well, for starters, you could gauge the pages of a book as literal distance. Page 116 is literally farther along in the book and plot than page 111. In situations like this where the distance is ambiguous, many English language resources (the Oxford English Dictionary, Fowlers Modern English Usage to name a few) suggest that farther or further can be used.Beyond this, if you are using British English, Garners Modern English Usage notes that the British use both further and farther for physical distance. Use further if youre not sure.Therefore, the simplest answer to the farther vs. further debate is to use further if you arent sure if the distance is metaphorical or physical , since further, according to its dictionary definition, covers both. However, if you are sure that the distance is literal rather than metaphorical, use farther.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Genetically Vigorous Populations Essay - 1508 Words

Genetically Vigorous Populations Paper Megan Lade University of Phoenix (Online Campus) Niladri Sarker Introduction into Genetic Diversity Genetic diversity provides a species with its form and function. A species genotype refers to their genetic code; what their cells are going to be used for – hair cell, eye cell, muscle cell, etc. A species phonotype refers to the way in which that species gene will be expressed – blonde hair, blue eyes, large muscle tone; which significantly impacts the success of that individuals genes. Without genetic diversity among populations the gene pools would be very limited, which gives way to a rise in mutations and inevitably the end of a species. â€Å"Genes regulate body size, shape,†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"As biological novelties to the ecosystems, GM crops may potentially affect the fitness of other species, population dynamics, ecological roles, and interactions, promoting local extinctions, population explosions, and changes in community structure and function inside and outside agro-ecosystems† (Gertsberg, 2011). Population Management Population management is dependent upon the carrying capacity of a population. The carrying capacity of a population is described as the maximum population size of a species that the environment can sustain given all necessary items such as food, water and habitat are available. Genetic diversity is a key value when discussing population management as the more diverse a population is, the more resistant that species will be to environmental changes and disease. Over population, exceeding that population’s carrying capacity can cause starvation, loss of habitat and death. Controlling food sources and other natural resources can help control a population’s numbers; which further increases the opportunity for genetic diversity among healthy species. Another way to control invasive species, mostly plant species, is via controlled fires; alternatively the reintroduction of natural predators also controls populations. As with everything in life, we can h ave ‘too much’ – finding the happy medium in the points above is key to successful population management. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Commission has a very detailed populationShow MoreRelatedEssay on Cons of Genetic Modification of Plants 1024 Words   |  5 PagesIn our everyday lives we have a substantial need for food. Everyone on planet earth needs food to survive from day to day, so engineers have begun mutating plants and crops to create a better source of nutrition to the population. Scientists are pushing the boundaries in order to create the most bountiful crops and, in turn, healthier people. Imagine what could happen if there were larger harvests, more succulent fruits and nutritious vegetables. Our imagination can run wild with the endlessRead MoreWhat Are Genetically Modified Foods?1236 Words   |  5 PagesWhat are genetically-modified foods? The term GM foods or GMOs (genetically-modified organisms) is most commonly used to refer to crop pla nts created for human or animal consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques. 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According to Public Health Agency of Canada, 90% to 95% of Canadian population are diagnosed with diabetes, especially with Type II diabetes (PHAC, 2016). It is statically proven that in 2008-09, approximately 2.4 million Canadians from the age group of one year and older are diagnosed with diabetes. In addition, 6.4% of femalesRead MoreA Short Note On Diabetes Mellitus Type II1039 Words   |  5 Pages(Diabetes Mellitus,2005-2016). The impact on the human physiology is by insufficient production of sugar (insulin) in the bloodstream which then over the time damages to other organs. According to Public Health Agency of Canada, 90% to 95% of Canadian population are diagnosed with diabetes, especially with Type II diabetes (PHAC, 2016). It is statically proven that in 2008-09, approximately 2.4 million Canadians from the age group of one year and older are diagnosed with diabetes. In addition, 6.4% of femalesRead MoreGentically Vigorous Essay1964 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿ Genetically Vigorous Populations Team B BIO/280 May 5th 2014 Genetically Vigorous Populations Biodiversity is life’s variety. It is the varying genetics that each species carries that makes it different and â€Å"unique†. Biodiversity is important, not only in evolution, but in survival; when sometimes those terms can mean the very same thing. Interestingly, biodiversity can mean a variance in the life itself – or within the genetics of a species. In keeping breeding

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1829 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/04/05 Category Society Essay Level High school Topics: Child Abuse Essay Did you like this example? In 1980, Congress passed the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act (AACWA) in response to the increasing number of children in the foster care system. This legislation required states to make reasonable efforts to avoid removing children from their homes and to reunite families when removal was necessary. Additionally, the AACWA provided financial incentives for adoption when family reunification was not possible. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act" essay for you Create order Then, in 1994 Congress passed the Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA), which prohibited child welfare agencies from delaying or denying adoptive placements on the basis of race but allowed race as a consideration in placement decisions. In response to criticism that this perpetuated attitudes against interracial adoption, MEPA was amended in 1996 to narrow the circumstances in which race may be considered to those in which specific child needs make race important to successful placement. Counselor Considerations Ethical standards. The American Counseling Association has outlined standards of ethical practice for the mandated reporting of child abuse. According to the ACA Code of Ethics section B.2.a: The general requirement that counselors keep information confidential does not apply when disclosure is required to protect clients or identified others from serious and foreseeable harm or when legal requirements demand that confidential information must be revealed. Counselors consult with other professionals when in doubt as to the validity of an exception (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7). According to this standard, confidentiality is void when the disclosure of information is necessary to prevent harm to clients or when laws require it, as is the case with the mandated reporting of child abuse. It also specifies that counselors should consult with other professionals if they are unsure as to whether or not a breach of confidentiality is appropriate. The ACA Code of Ethics also addresses ethical record keeping practices as it relates to child abuse cases. Section B.6.h states: Counselors store records following termi nation of services to ensure reasonable future access, maintain records in accordance with federal and state laws and statutes such as licensure laws and policies governing records, and dispose of client records and other sensitive materials in a manner that protects client confidentiality. Counselors apply careful discretion and deliberation before destroying records that may be needed by a court of law, such as notes on child abuse, suicide, sexual harassment, or violence. (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 8) Not only should counselors adhere to the overarching legal and ethical policies related to record keeping, but they must take extra precaution when handling documentation that may be needed in legal proceedings, such that related to child abuse. Counselors should carefully consider the consequences of destroying these records and use their best judgment in deciding whether or not to do so. Additionally, the ACA Code of Ethics explains that counselors should protect the confidentiality of minor clients in accordance with laws, policies, and relevant ethical standards. Section B.5.a states: When counseling minor clients or adult clients who lack the capacity to give voluntary, informed consent, counselors protect the confidentiality of information received in any medium in the counseling relationship as specified by federal and state laws, written policies, and applicable ethical standards (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7). Because counselors must operate in accordance with state and federal laws, they should be aware of the laws specific to the state in which they are practicing. State Laws. While all 50 states have laws mandating healthcare professionals to report suspected child abuse, each states laws contain variations regarding what to report and how to do so. Counselors must be aware of their states laws and procedures when deciding whether breaching confidentiality to file a report is warranted. In Arizona, child abuse is defined as when a parent, guardian or custodian inflicts or allows the infliction of physical, sexual or emotional abuse, neglect, exploitation or abandonment (Arizona Department of Child Safety, 2018, para. 2). According to Arizona Rev. Stat. ? § 13-3620: Any person who reasonably believes that a minor is or has been the victim of physical injury, abuse, child abuse, a reportable offense or neglect that appears to have been inflicted on the minor by other than accidental means or that is not explained by the available medical history as being accidental in nature, or who reasonably believes that there has been a denial or deprivation of necessary medical treatment or surgical care or nourishment with the intent to cause or allow the death of an infant who is protected under A.R.S. ? § 36-2281, shall immediately rep ort or cause reports to be made of this information to a peace officer or to the Department of Child Safety (Arizona Department of Child Safety, 2018, para. 3). The law further specifies that counselors and other healthcare professionals are required to file a report if, over the course of treatment, they develop a reasonable belief that child abuse has occurred. Professionals who report suspected abuse are under no obligation to prove abuse has occurred but are required by law to file a report of any reasonable suspicion of maltreatment to a minor. If the suspected perpetrator is the childs guardian, the report should be made to the police or the Department of Child Safety (DCS). If the child is not in the care of the suspected perpetrator, the report should be made only to the police. When filing a report with DCS through the telephone hotline or online portal, clinicians will be asked to provide the following information: name, age, and gender of the child and family members; address, phone number(s), and/or directions to childs home; parents place of employment; description of suspected abuse or neglect; and current condition of the child (Arizona Department of Child Safety, 2018). Individuals using the online portal will also be asked to provide their own name, professional affiliation, and contact information. Clinicians concerned about retaliatory actions on behalf of the perpetrator should be aware that, according to Rev. Stat. ? § 8-807, DCS will take necessary precautions to protect the identity and safety of the ind ividual filing the report before releasing any information regarding the investigation to the public (Arizona Department of Child Safety, 2018). By law, counselors are not required to inform the childs parents or guardians that a report is being filed. However, Peterson and Urquiza (1993) assert that it is often therapeutically advisable to do so in order to avoid feelings of suspicion, isolation, or betrayal. When sharing this information, clinicians should inform the parents that precautions will be taken throughout the reporting and investigation process to avoid injury or emotional trauma to the child. If the parent is the suspected perpetrator, the clinician can provide the option for the parent to self-report in their presence. However, allowing the parent to self-report does not negate the therapists individual mandate to report the suspected abuse. Informing parents of a report is not advised when there is concern that sharing this information could lead the parent to harm to the child. Clinicians should be attentive to parent factors that could indicate danger to the child, such as appearing psychotic, having poor impulse control, having a history of violent behavior, having substance use issues, or being likely to flee (Peterson Urquiza, 1993). Therapists should attempt to preserve rapport with parents by informing them of the situation when appropriate, but child welfare must a lways be the therapists top priority. The decision to report. Despite the clear legal and ethical guidelines requiring professionals to report suspected abuse, approximately 40% of individuals mandated to report child maltreatment fail to do so at some point during their careers (Alvarez, Kenny, Donohue, Carpin, 2004). To better understand why this occurs, Alvarez, Kenny, Donohue, Carpin (2004) identified four major barriers that professionals encounter when deciding whether to not to file a report of suspected abuse. The first reason that professionals provided for not reporting was a lack of knowledge of both the signs of abuse, especially those of neglect, and reporting procedures. Participants in this study frequently shared that they chose not to report due to a lack of physical evidence. Several clinicians also indicated confusion surrounding mandated reporting requirements and agency-specific policies and procedures. Many also felt as though they were breaching confidentiality in filing a report without complete certainty that abuse had, in fact, taken place. Based on these findings, clinicians should familiarize themselves with the signs of abuse, both physical and behavioral, and should seek out supervision or consultation to ensure that they understand reporting policies and procedures. If counselors are unsure as to whether a breach of confidentiality is warranted, they should seek advice from other mental health practitioners and/or legal professionals. The clinicians in this study als o cited concern about negative consequences for the client as a reason for not reporting. They expressed fear that filing a report would cause further harm to the client, such as by disrupting an already unstable family structure or by placement of the child into a worse living environment. Clinicians also indicated a negative attitude towards child protective agencies as a barrier to reporting. Many expressed concerns that state involvement would place the child at risk of experiencing additional harm due to delays in the investigation or a lack of follow-up. Several clinicians also shared their belief that child protection agencies would not do anything, even if they did file a report. (Alvarez, Kenny, Donohue, Carpin, 2004, p. 566). While these concerns regarding client welfare are valid, clinicians are expected to practice in accordance with state and federal laws mandating the reporting of child abuse. Counselors should continue to advocate for their clients after filing a report to ensure that precautions are taken within the child protection system to protect them from injury or emotional trauma during investigative proceedings. Lastly, clinicians cited concern about negative consequences for themselves as a result of filing a report. Some of these concerns included a fear of physical or legal retaliation from the suspected perpetrator, a loss of rapport with the cli ent or family, or not wanting to be involved in legal proceedings related to the case. Additionally, clinicians may also struggle to acknowledge abuse within families with whom they have built trust and rapport. In case of legal proceedings, clinicians should keep accurate and detailed records of treatment and decision-making and should seek advice from other professionals if they are unsure as to whether confidentiality should be broken. Clinicians must always prioritize child welfare and should seek supervision if personal concerns become a barrier to doing so. In deciding whether to file a report of suspected child abuse, clinicians should familiarize themselves with state laws and agency policies and should be familiar with both physical and behavioral signs of abuse. They should consult with a supervisor, colleagues, and/or legal professionals if they are uncertain as to whether a breach of confidentiality is warranted. Clinicians should remember that child welfare supersedes confidentiality and that they do not need to prove that abuse or neglect as occurred, given that they have reasonable belief. Counselors must always prioritize child welfare and should advocate for their clients th roughout the reporting and investigative process to prevent undue injury or emotional distress.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How to Calculate Retirement Funds Free Essays

To calculate the present value of interest and principal payments, you will need to use the NAP function, rather than the UP function, since the cash flows in the principal and interest columns are not constant throughout time. ] What do you observe when you look at these numbers? Explain. (c) Using your amortization table, what Is the principal that remains to be paid after you have completed 15 years of payments? How does this figure relate to the payments that you have already made? How does this figure relate to your remaining payments? Explain. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Calculate Retirement Funds or any similar topic only for you Order Now (d) Suppose that you had bought this house in June of 2006 under the terms scribed above. Since that date, the average house has declined in value at the rate of 1% per month. [This is the national average for the 3-year period ending summer 2009. ] Assuming that you also experienced this price decline on your house, at what point in calendar time will you owe more in principal on the loan than the house is worth? Assume throughout that you make every payment on time and that house prices continue to decline until at least this point in time. Answer the same question if you had paid 30% down Instead of 10%. Explain why your answers are different. E) Now suppose that your house from part (d) was located In Miami, FL. The average decline in housing prices over this time period in Miami was about 2% per month for the last 4 years. Assume that your house’s price declined by the same amount as the average house in the Miami area. How does a 2% decline change your answers to part (d)? Are the answers the same or different? Explain. NOTE: For questions prepare a spreadsheet model for part. Use this spreadsheet model with additional calculations for part b, c, d, e. Written answers to the questions in b, c, d, and e should be place on a separate worksheet In the same document. 2. Suppose that your salary at age 25 Is $72,500 and that you are paid on a monthly basis. You plan to retire at age 65 and will need 75% of you last year’s salary as Income after you retire for living expenses. You have saved $55,000 to date. You want to build your dream home to live out the rest of your life in at age 50. Based on current prices Ana an Notation rate Tanat Is expected to rise at 1% per year Inelegantly, you project this home will cost $1,000,000 to complete. You have some older relatives that have always had an interest in you and have indicated that you are in their wills. Assume that you will inherit $100,000 in 5 years. Assume that you like to travel and plan to take one nice trip every year starting at the end of your first year of retirement until age 75. The average price of the kind of trips you would like to take is $5,000 today and will rise with inflation. You project that your salary will grow at a rate of 2% and that your retirement income needs will grow at 1%. Finally, assume that you expect to live to age 85 and that you wish to have a balance at the end of your life that is equal to the present value of 5 years of your needed income. The appropriate interest rate for your working life is 9% and declines to 6% after you tire. Both rates of return are nominal. Assume that growth rate and interest rates are quoted as annual figures and reported as EAR’s. A) What % of your monthly salary do you need to start saving to meet your expected needs? Find the solution to this problem by taking all cash flows to the present (I. E. Age 25) b) Verify that your monthly savings from part a plus your initial savings and inheritance described above will allow you to pay for the house at age 50. NOTE: Build a spreadsheet model to answer these two questions and place it in the same document as your answers to questions 1 . How to cite How to Calculate Retirement Funds, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Fears and Phobias Essay Example For Students

Fears and Phobias Essay Part 1. Phobia 1. 1 Meaning of phobia. A  phobia  (from the  Greek:   ,  phobos, meaning fear or morbid fear) is an intense and persistent  fear  of certain situations, activities, things, animals, or people. The main symptom of this  disorder  is the excessive and unreasonable desire to avoid the feared stimulus. When the fear is beyond ones control, and if the fear is interfering with daily life, then a diagnosis under one of the  anxiety disorders  can be made. This is caused by what are called, neutral, unconditioned, and conditioned stimuli, which trigger either conditioned or unconditioned responses. An example would be a person who was attacked by a dog (the unconditioned stimulus) would respond with an unconditioned response. When this happens, the unconditioned stimulus of them being attacked by the dog would become conditioned, and to this now conditioned stimulus, they would develop a conditioned response. If the occurance had enough of an impact on this certain person then they would develop a fear of that dog, or in some cases, an irrational fear of all dogs. Phobias are the most common form of  anxiety disorders. An  American  study by the  National Institute of Mental Health  (NIMH) found that between 8. 7% and 18. 1% of Americans suffer from phobias. Broken down by age and gender, the study found that phobias were the most common  mental illness  among women in all age groups and the second most common illness among men older than 25. Phobias are not generally diagnosed if they are not particularly distressing to the patient and if they are not frequently encountered. If a phobia is defined as impairing to the individual, then it will be treated after being measured in context by the degree of severity. A large percent of the American population is afraid of public speaking, which could range from mild uncomfortability, to an intense anxiety that inhibits all social involvement. Phobias are generally caused by an event recorded by the amygdala and hippocampus and labeled as deadly or dangerous; thus whenever a specific situation is approached again the body reacts as if the event were happening repeatedly afterward. Treatment comes in some way or another as a replacing of the memory and reaction to the previous event perceived as deadly with something more realistic and based more rationally. In reality most phobias are irrational, in the sense that they are thought to be dangerous, but in reality are not threatening to survival in any way. Some phobias are generated from the observation of a parents or siblings reaction. The observer then can take in the information and generate a fear of whatever they experienced. 1. 2 Causes Phobias are known as an emotional response learned because of difficult life experiences. Generally phobias occur when fear produced by a threatening situation is transmitted to other similar situations, while the original fear is often repressed or forgotten. The excessive, unreasoning fear of water, for example, may be based on a childhood experience of almost drowning. The individual attempts to avoid that situation in the future, a response that, while reducing anxiety in the short term, reinforces the association of the situation with the onset of anxiety. 1. 3 Clinical phobias Psychologists  and  psychiatrists  classify most phobias into three categories  and, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), such phobias are considered to be sub-types of  anxiety disorder. The three categories are: Social phobia- fears involving other people or social situations such as performance anxiety or fears of embarrassment by scrutiny of others, such as eating in public. Overcoming social phobia is often very difficult without the help of therapy or support groups. Social phobia may be further subdivided into generalized social phobia  (also known as  social anxiety disorder  or simply  social anxiety) and specific social phobia, in which  anxiety  is triggered only in specific situations. The symptoms may extend to psychosomatic manifestation of physical problems. For example, sufferers of  paruresis  find it difficult or impossible to urinate in reduced levels of privacy. This goes far beyond mere preference: when the condition triggers, the person physically cannot empty their bladder. Specific phobias   fear of a single specific  panic trigger  such as  spiders,  snakes,  dogs,  water,  heights, flying, catching a specific illness, etc. Many people have these fears but to a lesser degree than those who suffer from specific phobias. People with the phobias specifically avoid the entity they fear. Agoraphobia   a generalized fear of leaving home or a small familiar safe area, and of possible  panic attacks  that might follow. May also be caused by various specific phobias such as fear of open spaces, social embarrassment (social agoraphobia), fear of contamination (fear of germs, possibly complicated by  obsessive-compulsive disorder) or  PTSD  (post traumatic stress disorder) related to a trauma that occurred out of doors. Phobias vary in severity among individuals. Some individuals can simply avoid the subject of their fear and suffer relatively mild anxiety over that fear. Others suffer full-fledged panic attacks with all the associated disabling symptoms. Most individuals understand that they are suffering from an irrational fear, but they are powerless to override their initial panic reaction. 1. 4 Treatments Various methods are claimed to treat phobias. Their proposed benefits may vary from person to person. Some therapists use  virtual reality  or imagery exercise to  desensitize  patients to the feared entity. These are parts of  systematic desensitization  therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy  (CBT) can be beneficial. Cognitive behavioral therapy lets the patient understand the cycle of negative thought patterns, and ways to change these thought patterns. CBT may be conducted in a group setting. Gradual desensitisation treatment and CBT are often successful, provided the patient is willing to endure some discomfort. In one clinical trial, 90% of patients were observed with no longer having a phobic reaction after successful CBT treatment. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing  (EMDR) has been demonstrated in peer-reviewed clinical trials to be effective in treating some phobias. Raging Waters EssayThe facial expression of fear includes the widening of the eyes (out of anticipation for what will happen next); the pupils dilate (to take in more light); the upper lip rises, the brows draw together, and the lips stretch horizontally. The physiological effects of fear can be better understood from the perspective of the sympathetic nervous responses (fight-or-flight), as compared to the parasympathetic response, which is a more relaxed state. Muscles used for physical movement are tightened and primed with oxygen, in preparation for a physical fight-or-flight response. Perspiration  occurs due to blood being shunted from bodys  viscera  to the peripheral parts of the body. Blood that is shunted from the viscera to the rest of the body will transfer, along with oxygen and nutrients, heat, prompting perspiration to cool the body. When the stimulus is shocking or abrupt, a common reaction is to cover (or otherwise protect) vulnerable parts of the anatomy, particularly the face and head. When a fear stimulus occurs unexpectedly, the victim of the fear response could possibly jump or give a small start. The persons heart-rate and heartbeat may quicken. 2. 4 Causes People develop specific fears as a result of learning. This has been studied in psychology as  fear conditioning, beginning with John B. Watsons Little Albert experiment  in 1920. In this study, an 11-month-old boy was conditioned to fear a white rat in the laboratory. The fear became generalized to include other white, furry objects. In the real world, fear can be acquired by a frightening traumatic accident. For example, if a child falls into a well and struggles to get out, he or she may develop a fear of wells, heights (acrophobia), enclosed spaces (claustrophobia), or water (aquaphobia). There are studies looking at areas of the brain that are affected in relation to fear. When looking at these areas (amygdala), it was proposed that a person learns to fear regardless of whether they themselves have experienced trauma, or if they have observed the fear in others. In a study completed by Andreas Olsson, Katherine I. Nearing and Elizabeth A. Phelps the amygdala were affected both when subjects observed someone else being submitted to an aversive event, knowing that the same treatment awaited themselves, and when subjects were subsequently placed in a fear-provoking situation. This suggests that fear can develop in both conditions,not just simply from personal history. Although fear is learned, the capacity to fear is part of  human nature. Many studies have found that certain fears (e. g. animals, heights) are much more common than others (e. g. flowers, clouds). These fears are also easier to induce in the laboratory. This phenomenon is known as  preparedness. Because early humans that were quick to fear dangerous situations were more likely to survive and reproduce, preparedness is theorized to be a genetic effect that is the result of  natural selection. The experience of fear is affected by historical and cultural influences. For example, in the early 20th Century, many Americans feared  polio, a disease that cripples the body part it affects, leaving that body part immobilized for the rest of ones life. There are also consistent cross-cultural differences in how people respond to fear. Display rules  affect how likely people are to show the facial expression of fear and other emotions. 2. 5 Neurobiology The  amygdala  is a key  brain  structure in the neurobiology of fear. It is involved in the processing of negative emotions (such as fear and anger). Researchers have observed hyperactivity in the amygdala when patients who were shown threatening faces or confronted with frightening situations. Patients with a more severe social phobia showed a correlation with increased response in the amygdala. Studies have also shown that subjects exposed to images of frightened faces, or faces of people from another race exhibit increased activity in the amygdala. The fear response generated by the amygdala can be mitigated by another brain region known as the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, located in the  frontal lobe. In a 2006 study at Columbia University, researchers observed that test subjects experienced less activity in the amygdala when they  consciously  perceived fearful stimuli than when they  unconsciouslyperceived fearful stimuli. In the former case, they discovered the rostral anterior cingulate cortex activates to dampen activity in amygdala, granting the subjects a degree of emotional control. The role of the amygdala in the processing of fear-related stimuli has been questioned by research upon those in which it is bilateral damaged. Even in the absence of their amygdala, they still react rapidly to fearful faces. Suppression of amygdala activity can also be achieved by pathogens. Rats infected with the  toxoplasmosis  parasite become less fearful of cats, sometimes even seeking out their urine-marked areas. This behavior often leads to them being eaten by cats. The parasite then reproduces within the body of the cat. There is evidence that the parasite concentrates itself in the amygdala of infected rats. Conclusion We have come to the conclusion that: †¢ The meaning of fears and phobias are very close fears and phobias appear because of different reasons, happened to people †¢ feeling of fear is a defending reaction of our body to some shocking situations Resourses Bourke, Joanna,  Fear: a cultural history, Virago (2005) Duenwald, Mary. The Physiology of Facial Expressions,  Discover magazine, v. 26, n. 1, January 2005 Gardner, Dan,  Risk: The Science and Politics of Fear, Random House, Inc . , 2008. ISBN 0771032994 Krishnamurti, Jiddu,  On Fear, Harper Collins,  ISBN 0-06-251014-2  (1995) Robin, Corey,  Fear: the history of a political idea, Oxford University Press (2004) www. wikipedia. com